Any cubs with the sow are this year's cubs. The cubs are born in the winter, January, come out of the den in early April and travel with the sow all summer and fall. If the sow survives the hunting seasons her cubs will den with her that fall. When they come out of the den the next spring they will travel with the sow for a short time then she will force them to disperse. She will then breed that spring or summer, sometime over about a three month period, and process starts allover again.
Bears have delayed implantation of the egg once they are bred, in June, July or August. The egg will attach to the uterus about the first week of November, in all bred bears no mater when they were bred. Once the egg attaches to the uterus the sow is going to den within a week or two. Then all of the new cubs will be born about the same time in January and the process is renewed again.
Cubs that lose their mother are basically able to survive on their own after about July of the year they are born, but my experience has been that cubs who lose their mother before fall tend to get themselves in trouble and sometimes that trouble is a fatal mistake.
I did the same thing this past Saturday. I think it was the sow or maybe a 1 1/2-2yr old with 2 small cubs at 25yds. I passed up the shot since they were all small and didn’t want to have the cubs fend for themselves.