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What is the minimum charge you would use ethically for deer? I’ve always used 100 grains of BH209 just because my gun shoots pretty good with that amount. I’m hoping to have time in the next couple weeks to tinker around with the load some and was going to try going down before I go up. So what’s the minimum for deer to 100ish yards?

And this would be for an in-line.
 

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Most guns have a sweet high spot and a sweet low spot in powder charges.
I have 2 small frame TC Senecas in 45 cal.One is set up with maxis and the other RBs.Both get a charge of 50grs.Killed deer with both with never finding a RB or maxi in the deer.Pass thru with lung shots.I also have a 58 cal that likes a high end load of 120grs.Killed deer with it and they were no more dead when shot with the 45's. Know guys on another form that kill deer with .32 cal and another that years back used a 36 cal on elk.it's MORE the person behind the gun than the caliber or powder charge.A bad hit is still a bad hit regardless of how big that bullet/RB and powder charge is.It's that 1st shot out of a clean bore that matters.
NOTHING lives with a hole in the heart or lungs no matter what caliber or projectile used!
 

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Me and my daughter have had great success over the years with a TC Cheap Shot and 40 grains of 3f Triple 7. The 240 grain lead hollow point gets 1350 fps ( chrono'd) and has taken deer from 15 feet to 125 yards.
Its like shooting them with a 44 Magnum handgun.
 

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What are you shooting 50cal,54cal,62cal need to know that for starters but in my 50cal flintlock 60 grain Black powder with 490 round ball
50 cal inline 80 to 100 gr black powder not that substitute stuff with 240 sabot bullet your gun will let you know when you found what it likes. Rule of thumb use to be your caliber plus 10 for starters then work up a charge from there.hope this helps.
 

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65 Grains of FFF Goex. in my 50 cal. flinters. 70 grains if i'm in a reckless wasteful mood.>:)
 
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100grains of BH209 is a very high load... It is more powerful then triple 7 powder... I would say 80 grains of BH209 would be a good load for whitetails...
 

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My flintlock has a low sweet spot at 62gr and high sits at 83gr. That's for a .490 ball and .015 patch.
If I shoot a .495 ball with a .010 patch, the low increases to 65gr and the high goes up to 85gr. Not sure why, just what I've observed over the years.

About 90% of my shooting is with the .490 balls and 62gr at the range, 83gr under the same ball when after deer. One of these trips I'll remember to shoot up the remaining .495 balls just to be rid of them... The .490 balls seem to be vastly more common/available.
 

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Both my 50 cal flinters use a 90-95 gr FFG as a main charge. Elaines Thunderhawk 50 cal uses 95-100grs of Pyrodex Select under a 250gr Hornady SST saboted bullet. We discovered after a few years of using Goex FFG and a 460gr Maxi that it was more desirable to print 1 1/2" 100yd groups with Pyrodex than 3" @ 50 yds with Goex. And Goex is always my first choice, Elaines Thunderhawk had a different idea.

Play around with charges and bullet combinations untill you discover the charge wt, powder type, and bullet combo that CONSISTANTLY prints good groups, including the first shot from a cold, clean barrel staying with the group. If your present load chain is doing what you expect, and the first, second, and third shots are all in a tight little group, it ain't broke, so don't fix it.

Minimum charge? In 50 cal, 70 FFFG, 75FFG, 75 PyrodexR/S or Select. Limit 50 yds.
 
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