For all of us living in rusty Pa. Just wanted to give a shout out for this Rust Converter. Used it on quite a few things in the past and am always impressed. Supposed to only have a 6 month shelf life but mine is over 2 years old and I see no difference from new. Just take off anything loose, clean if greasy, but important to leave the rust, doesn't do anything at all to clean steel. Goes on like white milk but in a minute it turns black as it acts on the rust, dries in just a couple minutes. Leaves a smooth surface that can be painted, or not. This plate I use for welding would turn your hand red from touching it. Now it is black and smooth with one coat. Designed to work on rusty frames which is why I bought it.