I think you would be good with the rod and reel you have to test your interest.
Psycho gave you some good info on leaders. The fly you have will probably work to start with as long is there is no cracks and it feels smooth to the touch as you run the length thru your thumb and fore finger. A good line cleaner will definitely improve the performance and will can be used in the future too.
Your flies may work that you have, but I am hesitant to recommend that they are consistent trout catchers unless you are fishing for hungry natives.
I will recomment a few of my favorites for trout.
#1: Wooly buggers: Gold beaded in black and olive green.
Rather inexpensive and can be found at Walmart, Dicks, Gander Mountain. I catch my majority of trout on these and they are good for bass too they should cast well with your size fly rod. My favorite method is casting out at 9 & 10:00 and quick stripping them back in in 4 to 6" sequences.
Nymph fishing: Gold beaded prince nymph in size 14. Using a thing-a-mcbobber in the smallest size availabe for a strike indicator. This method always produces for me when nothing else seems to be interesting the trout.
Dry fly fishing: A good floating black ant pattern in size 12 & 14. This is a good generic dry fly to use when you see trout taking flies on top. A royal coachman in size 14 is a good dry fly attractor to use.
There are many other good patterns I could recommend, but to get you started these are my recommendation. I have been mentoring a few fishermen into fly fishing each year and these are the patterns that I have them using. I would say the beaded wooly buggers on the easiest to get beginners to consistenly catching trout.
I am by no means an expert or elite fly fisherman. I just enjoy catching them more on the fly rod over the spinning rod.
Be sure to post a few catch pictures in the fly fishing section when you get a chance to give it a whirl.