If you can, do multiple plots. Seed clover as cover over the cold-weather stuff.......turnips or brassicas or the like are popular. I've seen deer in turnips way earlier than the experts claim (usually you'll read that the deer won't eat the tops and won't eat the beets or turnips till it gets real cold). I've seen deer munching on the greens on top of the beets/turnips on a neighbor's field like they were kids with candy....and that was with temps in the 50's and no serious cold before hand.
If you can't do mutiple plots, consider a "doughnut" approach....do a perimeter of oats, for example, so they'll be near the edges. Make that as broad as you can, then plant the center in clover/cold weather plants of your choice. Let the clover come up fast to cover/protect from weeds, which gives the other crop time to establish and grow, eventually taking over when the cold kills or makes dormant the clover. The cold weather stuff could go in the middle since you'll have a longer reach in the non-bow seasons.
For that crop, you might want to take soil samples to the ag center for testing. It'll tell you what the soil will need. A lot of soil in this area is real low in pH. The time to address that for August was about 4 months ago. Lime applications in the fall and spring will help, over time, but won't have sufficient impact by August at this point. If fertilizer is needed, that's doable, of course.
I've found oats to be very tolerant of soil conditions. We have super low pH and need a few things for "optimum" with regards to nitrogen/phosphorus/etc. We don't bother, and the oats grow well.
Another crop you could consider is triticale. I put in about 1/8-1/4 acre of that one year (like wheat). All year I thought it was a waste of money. It grew tall and they didn't touch it. Grew big seed heads, they didn't touch it. I vowed to never use it again.
Then we got about 6" of snow and my trail cam had deer all over it. It was wiped clean in two days. Not the stalks, but every seed head was gone.
Ha...I'd forgotten about that. I may put some in this year again and see if that same situation repeats!
One year I tried the concept of planting soybeans and corn side-by-side. The concept I'd read about was that the beans would help feed nitrogen to the corn and the corn would provide some cover to protect the beans. I'd seen pics of plots planted like this. The beans and corn combined formed a real jungle, and it's all food for deer. Seemed like a great plan.
But.... our plots aren't huge. Both are less than a full acre. The deer simply mowed down all the plants as they sprouted and we were left with weed plots till the season hit. Crops like beans and corn need more volume than we can provide or the deer will just annihilate them.