The 19th century started with flintlock weapons and ended with automatic weapons firing hundreds of smokeless powder cartridges per minute. As weapons inventions progressed, there were hundreds of important advances, each of which were quickly replaced by improvements. The stumbling block to rapid fire was both ease of loading and reliable quick ignition. Needle fire guns were dependent on keeping ammunition dry and fragile serrated needles to ignite the charge. Rim fire was a coming along but the thin folded balloon head design required for ignition also restricted the power of the charge to avoid case rupture. Today, the US relies mostly on Boxer centerfire primers for such cartridges. Europeans utilize Berdan primers for that use. Berdane received his patent in March 1866 and Boxer received his patent the same year. But a fellow named Wills obtained a centerfire ignition patent 15 months earlier. The idea was manufactured by the Draper company and became known as the Draper cartridge. The cartridge had a threaded hollow base containing a percussion nipple. A percussion cap was placed over the nipple and the base of the case was then threaded over it. The Draper cartridge enjoyed limited popularity for a few decades in both shotgun and a few rifle cartridges.