"Record-setting dove life spans also can be documented through banding: Mourning Doves can live to be more than 30 years old! The national longevity record for a Mourning dove comes from a male dove banded in Georgia in 1968 and shot in Florida in 1998. Longevity records for doves in other regions of the U.S. range from 9 to 19 years. For doves banded in Pennsylvania, the record life span was held by a bird of at least 8½ years of age. This bird was banded as an adult near Reading in 2005, and was harvested by a hunter less than 2 miles away in December 2012. Our oldest dove recovered alive was ﬁrst banded at Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area as an adult in 2007, then re-trapped and released by Game Commission biologist Jack Gilbert in the same location in 2012, making it at least 6½ years old."
I'm sure the average dove probably has a lifespan of considerably less than 30 years. Consider predation, and all the other ways they get taken out, as well as by hunters. My guess is they probably don't last more than a year or two. Its probably the extremely lucky bird that makes it past 3 years, same with deer.